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RBHS Resource Databases Africa Museum Project


Early African History, Until 16th Century
-this website gives a pretty basic history of West Africa, early trade, kingdoms, and the Mali Empire. The information is pretty simple, but it has some good maps and diagrams of the different regions and how they spread from one to another.

African History
-“Precolonial Africa.” This traces the history of Africa back to the arrival of Herodotus and his descriptions of what he saw as a Greek. The two most helpful linked pages would be the notes on East Africa, West Africa, and Sundiata.

The Story of Africa Early History
“The Story of Africa.” Good BBC site analyzing the migrations in Africa: whether or not and why migrations occurred, pages on Islam, Christianity, and the different regions in Africa.

The Old Congo
In-depth history of the Congolese civilizations

African Christianity A History of the Christian Church in Africa
History of Ethiopian Christianity

HISTORY: THE SWAHILI COAST (500-1498)
History of the Swahili coast

African History
All of Africa Very easy overview of history including kingdom, settles and nomadic tribes

Internet African History Sourcebook
All of Africa Great site which looks at the religious differences of East Africa

Africa of the South Sahara
All of Africa

The Story of Africa
All of Africa

African Timelines
African Timelines

The history of West Africa as a whole
West Africa

The history of Central Africa as a whole
Central Africa

The history of East Africa as a whole
East Africa

Africa, West -- Religious History
Book Listings

World History Archives
Site breaks it down into each country with political, economic and social history

German East Africa, African History
Great site for reference on history of east Africa, Further links break it down by country

AfricanMecca
Site explores tribal communities of Eastern Africa. Great!

South African History
South African History


Bib Sources for Africa Museum

3Agatucci, Cara.  African Timelines.  April 2, 2005.  Central Oregon Community College.  October 24, 2007
http://web.cocc.edu/cagatucci/classes/hum211/timelines/htimeline.htm 

Carlson, Lucile.  “Mali”. Lands and Peoples. 2007. Grolier Online. October 18, 2007.
http://go.grolier.com/gol

Schiller, Edward H.  “Nigeria”.  Lands and Peoples. 2007. Grolier Online. October 22, 2007. http://go.grolier.com/gol

Osborne, Oliver.  “HealthCare in Post Colonial Africa”. January 2004. Washington University.  October 23, 2007.
http://healthcaresystemspostcolonial.blogspot.com/

1Culture Grams, world edition, 2008, Republic of Uganda http://strategyleader.org/profiles/nuer.html People Profile, The Nuer of Sudan and Ethiopia

Rosberg, Carl G. "Kenya." Encyclopedia Americana. 2207., Grolier. Online. 22 Oct, 2007 http://ea.grolier.com/cgibin/article?assetia=0229860-05

Bates, Margaret L. "German East Africa" Encyclopedia Americana 2007.

Culture Grams, World Edition,2008, Somolia

3Tomoki Kato. African People & Culture. September 2007.           <http://www.africaguide.com/culture/tribes/bambara.htm>

African Imports. Yoruba. September 2007. <http://www.africaguide.com/culture/tribes/yoruba.htm>

Hausa Information. November 3, 2007.           <http://www.uiowa.edu/~africart/toc/people/Hausa.html>

Carrie Martin. Hausa. October 22, 2007. http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/oldworld/africa/hausa.html

Sierra Leone. October 23, 2007. http://online.culturegrams.com/world

Yoruba Information. March 07, 1999. http://www.uiowa.edu/~africart/toc/people/yoruba.html

Yoruba Mask History. 2000. http://rebirth.co.za/yoruba_mask_history_meaning.htm

Fulani. October 24, 2007. http://www.africaguide.com/culture/tribes/fulani.htm

Mandinka. October 24, 2007. http://www.africaguide.com/culture/tribes/mandinka.htm

4Carstens, Peter. “San”  Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia.  2007. Grolier Online.  26 Oct. 2007.
http://gme.grolier.com/cgi-bin/article?assetid=0255840-07

“Republic of South Africa.”  Culture Grams World Edition.  2007.  Proquest. 24 October 2007.
http://online.culturegrams.com/world.world_country.php?contid=1&wmn=Africa&cid=1488cn=South_Africa

Africa Guide  25 October 2007.  www.africaguide/com/culture/tribes

Exploring Africa  26 October 2007. http://exploringafrica.matrix.msu.edu/students/curriculum/m20/activity1.php

2“Peoples of Central Africa”. 28 April 2005. Mountain Gorillas. 18 Oct. 2007
<http://www.cet.edu/etc/modules/mgorilla/mgethnic.html>.

“central Africa”. Answers.com. 18 Oct. 2007. <http://www.answers.com/central%20africa>.     

Nosotro, Rit. “Imperialism”. Hyperhistory. 18 Oct. 2007 <http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/essays/cot/+1w16mperialismp1mw.htm>.

Rotberg, Robert I. “Africa, History of (II)”. Grolier multimedia encyclopedia. 2007. Grolier online. 23 Oct
2007. http://gmc.grolier.com/cgi-bin/article?assetid=0003621.0>.

Helmreich, Jonathan E. “U.S. Foreign Policy and the Belgian Congo in the 1950’s”. Academic Search Elite.
24 Oct. 2007. <http://search.rbschosl.com/login.aspxdirect=truetrdb=afhtAN=a602190965tsite=ehost-live>.

“Central African Kingdoms”. BBC World Service. 24 Oct. 2007.
<http://www.bbc.10.ulc/worldservice/africa/features/storyofafrica/index_sections.shtml>.

Grant, Ted. “Crisis in Central Africa”. Nov. 1997. Defense of Marxism. 25 Oct. 2007.
http://www.marxist.com/Africa/centralafrica.html>.

“East Africa." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 15 Oct 2007, 02:07 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 5 Nov 2007 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=East_Africa&oldid=164628029>.

“German East Africa." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 5 Nov 2007, 04:44 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 5 Nov 2007 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=German_East_Africa&oldid=169313350

"Nuer." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 23 Oct 2007, 18:12 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 5 Nov 2007 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nuer&oldid=166563557>.

“Ethiopia.” CultureGrams World Edition. 2007. ProQuest. 19 May 2007 <http://online.culturegrams.com/world/world_country.php?contid=1&wmn=Africa&cid=52&cn=Ethiopia>

“Somalia.” CultureGrams World Edition. 2007. ProQuest. 19 May 2007 <http://online.culturegrams.com/world/world_country.php?contid=1&wmn=Africa&cid=52&cn=Somalia.>

“Kenya.” CultureGrams World Edition. 2007. ProQuest. 19 May 2007 <http://online.culturegrams.com/world/world_country.php?contid=1&wmn=Africa&cid=52&cn=Kenya.>

“Uganda.” CultureGrams World Edition. 2007. ProQuest. 19 May 2007 <http://online.culturegrams.com/world/world_country.php?contid=1&wmn=Africa&cid=52&cn=Uganda.>

“Tanzania.” CultureGrams World Edition. 2007. ProQuest. 19 May 2007 <http://online.culturegrams.com/world/world_country.php?contid=1&wmn=Africa&cid=52&cn=Tanzania.>

Cowan, L. Gray. "East Africa." Encyclopedia Americana. 2007. Grolier Online. 5 Nov. 2007 <
http://ea.grolier.com/cgi-bin/article?assetid=0137020-00>.

"South Africa" Culture Grams World Edition. 2008. ProQuest. http://online.culturegrams.com/world/index.php

"Zambia >>3. The People." Encyclopedia Americana. 2007. Grolier Online. 22 Oct. 2007 <http://ea.grolier.com/cgi-bin/article?assetid=0429010-03>.

"Madagascar"Culture Grams World Edition. 2008. ProQuest. http://online.culturegrams.com/world/index.php

Gluckman, Max. "Sulu." Encyclopedia Americana. 2007. Grolier Online. 22 Oct. 2007 <
http://ea.grolier.com/cgi-bin/article?assetid=0430890-00
>.

"Sotho." Encyclopedia Americana. 2007. Grolier Online. 22 Oct. 2007 <http://ea.grolier.com/cgi-bin/article?assetid=0363210-00>.

africaguide.com/culture/tribes/ashanti.html

culturegrams.com/world/world_country_sections.php.html

uiowa.edu/~afiart/toe/people/hausa.html

engrolier.com/egi-bin/article?ussed=0137020007

africa.upenn.edu/k-12/french_16178.html

Cowan, L. Gray.  “East Africa.” Encyclopedia Americana. 2007. Grolier Online. 7 Nov. 2007 <
http://ea.grolier.com/cgi-bin/article?assetid=0137020
>.

Lystad, Robert A. "Africa." Encyclopedia Americana. 2007. Grolier Online. 7 Nov. 2007 <
http://ea.grolier.com/cgi-bin/article?assetid=0005390-08>.

“Kenya.” CultureGrams World Edition. 2007. ProQuest. 19 May 2007. <http://online.culturegrams.com/world/world_country.php?contid-7&wmn=Africa&cid=125&cn=Kenya>.

“Sudan.” CultureGrams World Edition. 2007. ProQuest. 19 May 2007. <http://online.culturegrams.com/world/world_country.php?contid-7&wmn=Africa&cid=125&cn=Sudan>.

http://online.culturegrams.com/ (go to the Rock Bridge website, then  Research Databases, then to Cultures Grams)

  http://auth.grolier.com/login/go_login_page.html (go to the Rock  Bridge website, then Research Databases, then to Land and People)

http://hartford-hwp.com/archives/35/index-i.html( go to the Rock Bridge web site, then to Educational Sites, Then to Africa museum 
project, then to The History of Central Africa as a Whole)

http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/  ( click on Africa, then pick a  tribe)

http://www.courses.psu.edu/test/test100_hkr/AFIM/Main_HTML/NR_S.html

CultureGrams World Edition. Africa. 19 May 2007. ProQuest.24 October 2007 http://online.culturegrams.com/world/world_country_sections.php?contid=1&wmn=Africa

Bruce Wilson. Imperialism in Africa. Rock Bridge High School. 25 October 2007: p.469-476

“Africa” Microsoft® Ecarta® Online Encyclopedia 2007. 24 October 2007 http://uk.encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia.761572628/Africa.html

hyperhistory.net/apwh/essays/cot/t1w16mperialismp1mw.html

(http://www.gateway-africa.com/tribe/zulu_tribe.html)

http://www.encounter.co.za/article/126.html


http://africanhistory.about.com/library/biographies/blbio-stevebiko.htm


(http://www.bulawayo1872.com/history/shona.htm)

Jones, Jim. “East Africa in the 19th Century.” West Chester University Lectures.       Article. 2003. West Chester University History 312. October 29, 2007.           http://courses.wcupa.edu/jones/his312/lectures/eastafr.htm

http://www.wikipedia.com/africa_east

http://web.cocc.edu/cagatucci/classes/hum211/timelines/htimeline3.htm

http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/ht/36.1/gilbert.html

Author. Pomeray, J.K. “Rwanda.” New York: Chelsea House, c1988.

Cohen, M. J. “History in Quotations.”  Ed. John Major. London: Cassell, 2004.

Diagram Group. “History of East Africa.” History of Africa. New York: Facts on File, 2003.

"the ndebel"ndebel oct 24 2007 http://www.krugerpark.co.va/africa/_nvebele_g2.html

"Shone beliefs"shone people oct 24 2007 _http://www.aaregistry.com_ (http://www.aaregistry.com)

"Achievements in zulu tribe" Shaka oct 22, 2007 _http://www.en.wikipedia.org_ (http://www.en.wikipedia.org)

"The Zulu tribe" zulu people oct 23, 2007 _http://www.zulu/culture/history.com/_ (http://www.zulu/culture/history.com/)

"Power in the Zulu Tribe."  The Proud Zulu Tribe.  22 October 2007 http://www.socyberty.com

"Shona Tribe Economy."  Shona.  24 October 2007 http://www.gateway-africa.com

"Environment in Ndebele Tribe."  Ndebele.  25 October 2007 http://www.ndebele.org

"Ndebele Tribe."  Ndebele Culture and Beliefs.  25 October 2007 http://www.bulawayo1872.com

"Xhosa Tribe."  The Xhosa.  25 October 2007 http://www.encounter.co.za/article/126.html

"Zulu Tribe Economy."  Zulu Tribe.  25 October 2007 http://www.eshowe.com

Froiland, Andrew. "African people and Culture." www.africaguide.com/culture/tribes/ibo.htm, October 24, 2007

"Art and life in Africa, Igbo information." www.viowa.edu/africart/toc/people/igbo.html, October 23, 2007

"The World Factbook." www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/, October 25, 2007

"Culturegrams." www.culturegrams.com/products/worldedition/africa.htm, October 23, 2007

Gadaa Mebbaa. “Oromia Online.”Oromia and the Orome people.  22 October 2007 < www.oromia.org

Mohammed Farah Aidid, and Dr. Satya Pal Ruhela.  Somalia: From the Dawn of Civilization To The Modern Times.  New Delhi India, Vikas Publishing House, 1993 “Arab.net”. <http://www.arab.net/somalia

 “Somalia” The Colubia Electronic Encyclopedia. Online. 2007. Columbia University Press. 25 October 2007 Somalis-“Their History and Culture”. 25 October < http://www.cal.org/co/somalia

"the ndebel"ndebel oct 24 2007
http://www.krugerpark.co.va/africa/_nvebele_g2.html_

"Shone beliefs"shone people oct 24 2007 _http://www.aaregistry.com_ (http://www.aaregistry.com)

"Achievements in zulu tribe" Shaka oct 22, 2007 _http://www.en.wikipedia.org_ (http://www.en.wikipedia.org)

"The Zulu tribe" zulu people oct 23, 2007 _http://www.zulu/culture/history.com/_ (http://www.zulu/culture/history.com/)

Dan (Liberian Tribe West Africa).  10:19, 4 July 2007. Wikipedia. October 18, 2007.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dan_(Liberian_Tribe,_West_Africa)

“Africa People and Culture.” The Africa Guide. 1996-2007.  http://www.africaguide.com/culture/tribes/index.htm

“French in West Africa.”  Dr. Ali B. Ali-Dinar, Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania-African
Studies Center.  http://www.africa.upenn.edu/K-12/French_16178.html

“Mali.”  Culture Grams World Edition. 2007.  Proquest. http://online.culturegrams.com/

“Internet African History Sourcebook.”  Feb. 20, 2007.  Paul Halshall. 
http://www.fordham.edu/halshall/africa/africasbook.html
with links to http://library.advanced.org/13406/sh/
http://web.archive.org/web/20010210035839/http://www.humanities.ccny.cuny.edu/history/reader/ghana.htm

“Part III: African Slave Trade and European Imperialism.”  27 December 2005.  Cora Agatucci, Professor of English.  Humanities Department, Central Oregon Community College.  http://web.cocc.edu/cagatucci/classes/hum211/timelines/htimeline3.htm

“Central African Republic.” Culture Grams. World Edition. 2008. ProQuest. 18 October.     2007. Http://online.culturegrams.com/

“Routes to Independence in Africa.” Jean Martin, editor Lexique de la colonosation.   Paris: Dalloz, 1988. http://courses.wcupa.edu/jones/his311/lectures/4cases.htm

“African History Timeline: Independent Cameroon.” Jim Jones. 1998.   http://courses.wcupa.edu/jones/his311/timeline/t-camer-htm

“The Old Congo.” John Henrik Clarke. W.E.B. DuBois learning center. Kansas City,      MO. 2007. http://www.duboislc.org/index.html

http://www.bulawayo1872.com/history/shona.htm

http://web.cocc.edu/catatucci/classes/hum21/timeline3.htm

http://rhodesian.server101.com/lan%20douglas%20smith.htm

http://hyperhistory.net/apwh/essays/cot/tw1mw.htm

http://cud.chico.k12.ca.us/~bsilva/projects/imperialism/anderson.htm

http://www.africaguide.com/culture/tribes/zulu.htm

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/10/sfs/ht10sfs.htm

http://www.southafrica-travel.net/history/eh_xhosa.htm

http://www.sabchill.com/history/chapters/empres/0056.htm

http://www.africaguide.com/culture/tribes/zulu.htm

http://www.africaguide.com/culture/tribes/chewa.htm

http://www.africaguide.com/culture/tribes/bushmen.htm

http://www.africaguide.com/culture/tribes/bemba.htm

Culture Grams World Edition: East Africa: History
http://online.culturegrams.com/world_country_sections.php?contid=1&wmn=Africa

Thomas, Benjamin E. “Africa>>Geography>>2.Climate, Plants, and Animals.” Encyclopedia Americana. 2007. Grolier Online 24Oct.2007> http://ea.grolier.com/cgi-bin/article?assetid=00053-03

Steel, Robert W. “Africa.” Encyclopedia Americana.2007. Grolieronline. 24Oct.2007
http://ea.grolier.com/cgi-bin/article?assetid=0005390-02

East Africa Living Encyclopedia  http://www.africa.upenn.edu/NEH/Khome.htm

Kenya Ethiopia   >  Economy, Religion Somalia http://online.culturegrams.com/world

Uganda: The Land http://go.grolier.com/gol

Imperialism in Africa Map www.wwnorton.com/college/history/ralph/resource/impafr.htm

East Africa www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Africa

Tribes of East Africa www.homepage.mac.com/mjavins/PhotoAlbum5.html

East Africa: Meet, marvel at these hunters www.startribune.com/1513/story/1465076.html

African Languages www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_languages

Music, Musical Instruments & Dance www.africaguide.com/culture/music.htm

 Carstens, Peter. "Shona." Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. 2007. Frolier ONline. 22 Oct. 2007 <
http://gme.grolier.com/cgi-bin/article?assetid=025570-07
>.

"South Africa." CultureGrams World Edition. 2007. ProQuest. October 24, 2007. <http://online.culturegrams.com/world/world_country.php?contid=1&wmn=africa&cid=148&cn=south_africa>.

"Diamonds, Gold, and South Africa." University of california. 2000. <http://www.geology.ucdavis.edu/~cowen/~gel115/115ch15diamonds.html>.

"Zulu." The Africa Guide. 2007. <http://www.africaguide.com/culture/tribes/zulu.html>.

Mali Environment. 2007. Advameg Inc. 22 October 2007  http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Africa/Mali-ENVIRONMENT.html

Environment, Biodiversity, and Agricultural Changes in West Africa. 1997. The United Nations University. 22 October 2007.  <http://www.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/80964e/80964E00.html>

Nigeria, Burkina-Faso, etc. 2007. ProQuest LLC. 22 October 2007.  <http://online.culturegrams.com/world/world_country.php?>

Pangea and USAID Celebrate Achievements of West African Artisans. 2005. Pangea and IFC. 23 October 2007. <http://www.ifc.org/ifcext/gbo.nsf/Content/Pangea&USAIDCelebrateAchievementsofWestAfricanArtisians>

Achievements of Black Civilizations. 2007. The 7thFire.com. 23 October 2007.  <http://www.the7thfire.com/black_civilization/glorious_achievements_of_black_c.html>

History of Mathematics in Africa. 9 July 2000. Saxakali. 24 October 2007. <http://saxakali.com/COLOR_ASP/historymaf.html>

Ancient West African Kingdoms. 2000. The American Forum for Global Education. 24 October 2007.  <http://www.globaled.org/nyworld/materials/african2.html>

Middleton, John. Encylopedia of Africa South of the Sahara.

Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart.  Anchor Books. 1959.

Carr, Karen. “Central Africa.”  Kidipede History for Kids.  2007.  Portland State      University.  http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/africa/history/centralafrica.htm

“Central Africa’s Natural Resources.” AFIM Africa Interactive Maps.  1998. http://www.courses.psu.edu/test/test100_hkr/AFIM/Main_HTML/DIR.html

Africa. Culturegrams. http://online.culturegrams.com/world/world_region.php?contid=1&wmn=Africa

Rosenfeld, Erwin.  Geller, Harriet. European Imperialism in Africa.  Barron’s   Educational Series. 1993: New York.
Proquest Llc And Brigham. "Central African Republic." Culture Grams. 2004. Culture Grams. Rock Bridge, Columbia. 14 Oct. 2007 http://online.culturegrams.com/world/world_country.php?contid=1&wmn=Africa&cid=31&cn=Central_African_Republic

Proquest Llc And Brigham. "Gabon." Culture Grams. 2004. Culture Grams. Rock Bridge, Columbia. 14 Oct. 2007 http://online.culturegrams.com/world/world_country.php?contid=1&wmn=Africa&cid=57&cn=Gabon

Proquest Llc And Brigham. "Cameroon." Culture Grams. 2004. Culture Grams. Rock Bridge, Columbia. 14 Oct. 2007 http://online.culturegrams.com/world/world_country.php?contid=1&wmn=Africa&cid=29&cn=Cameroon

Proquest Llc And Brigham. "Nigeria." Culture Grams. 2004. Culture Grams. Rock Bridge, Columbia. 14 Oct. 2007 http://online.culturegrams.com/world/world_country.php?contid=1&wmn=Africa&cid=115&cn=Nigeria

Turner, Thomas. "Congo, Democratic Republic of." Reviewed by John F. Clark and John F. Clark. Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. 2007. Grolier Online. 29 Oct. 2007 <http://gme.grolier.com/cgi-bin/article?assetid=0069995-0>.
.
Beck, Roger B. World History Patterns of Interaction. 1st ed. Vol. 1. Evanston: McDougal Littell, 1999. 367-370.

The Maasai People.www.africagude.com/culture/tribes/maasai.htm

The Maasai Tribe.http://goafrica.about.com/library/bl.maasai.htm

The Environment of Eastern Africa. http://www.unep.ch/regionalseas/main/eaf/eafenv.html

The Nuer of Sudan.http://www.sudan101.com/nur.htm

Aksum and the Written Historieshttp://archaeology.about.com/csafrica/a/asksum.htm

Aksum.http://www.ethopianhistory.com/aksum

East Africa.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Africa

“Republic of South Africa.” Culture Grams. 22 October 2007.     <http://onlineculturegrams.com>

“African People and Culture.” The African Guide. 23 October 2007.      <http://www.africaguide.com>

“South Africa Lakes And Rivers.” Ita. 23October 2007. <http://www.geographic.org>

“South Africa.” Conservapedia. 23 October 2007. <http://www.conservapedia.com>

Central African Republic: Environmental Profile  Feb 2006, Monga Bay, San Fransisco  Oct 22, 2007 <http://rainforest.mongabay.com/20car.htm>

Timeline of Cameroon  2007, BBC, UK  Oct 2007  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/country_profiles/102/488.stm

Central Africa, 1600- 1800 AD

2000, Timeline of Art History, New York Oct 23, 2007 <http://metmuseum.org/toah/ht/09/sfc/ht09sfc.htm>

History of Rwanda

0ct 2007, Wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Rwanda>

African Timelines Part III, II

2006, Central Oregon Community College <http://web.cocc.edu/cagatucci/classes/hum211/timelines/htimeline3.htm>

"Nigeria Environment." Encyclopedia of the Nations. Online. http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Africa/
Nigeria-ENVIRONMENT.html

"Congo." Encyclopedia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 22 Oct. 2007. http://www.britannica.
com/eb/article-40711

"Central African Republic." Information Please Database.  2007. http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107399.html

"Central African Republic." Encyclopedia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 23 Oct. 2007.
http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-40699

Slattery, Katharine. "The Igbo People-Origins and History." 8 Nov. 1999. http://www.qub.ac.uk/schools/
SchoolofEnglish/imperial/nigeria/origins.htm

Campagnoli, Mauro. "Baka Pygmies." 2005. http://www.pygmies.info/

"Nigeria: The Nineteenth Century: Revolution and Radical Adjustment." June 1991. Library of Congress Country Studies. Oct. 25 2007. http://workmall.com/ wfb2001/nigeria/nigeria_history_the_nineteenth_century_ revolution_and_radical_adjustment.html Britannica. 2007. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 22 Oct. 2007. http://www.britannica. com/eb/article-40711

“Central African Republic." Information Please Database.  2007. http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107399.html

"Central African Republic." Encyclopedia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 23 Oct. 2007.
http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-40699

Slattery, Katharine. "The Igbo People-Origins and History." 8 Nov. 1999. http://www.qub.ac.uk/schools/ SchoolofEnglish

Bib #1
Crandall, David. “South Africa.”  Culture Grams. 2007 Bringham Young University. 23 Oct. 2007
http://online.dulturegrams.com/world/world_regionphp?contid=1&Africa>

Bib #2
Crandall David. “South Africa.” Culture Grams. 2007 Bringham Young University. 23 Oct 2007
http://online.culturegrams.com/world/world_regionphp?contid+1&umn=Africa>.

Bib #3
“Malawi.” Elca.org. Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. 24 Oct. 2007
http://www.elca.org?countrypackets/malawi/desc.html.

Bib #4
Grazin Natalie. “Quality Improvement in Malawi.” The Health Foundation. 2007. The Health Foundation.
24 Oct. 2007 http://www.health.org.uk/current_work?international_work/malawi.html.

Bib #5
“Botswana Environment.” Botwsana Environment. 2007. 24 Oct. 2007
http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com?Africa?Botswana-ENVIRONMENT.html.

Bib #6
“Sotho.” Sotho. U.S. Library of Congress. 24 Oct. 2007 http://countrystudies.us?southafrica/47.htm.

Bib #7
“Zimbabwe.” Culture Grams. 2007. 25Oct. 2007
<http://online.culturegrams.com/world/world_coutry_sections.php?contid=1&wmn=Africa&cid=180+cn=Zimbabwe&sname=History&snid=27.

Bib #8
Russel,Megan, Sarah Dawson, and Tamlin Armstrong.  “The Life of the Zulu Nation.” Amazulu. St. Mary’s School. 25 Oct. 2007
http://library.thinkquest.org/27209/index.htm.

Bib #9
“Shona Information.” Art and Life in Africa Online. 3 Nov. 1998. 25 Oct. 2007
http://www.viowa.edu/~africaart/toc/people/shona.html.

  1. “Republic of South Africa.” Culture Grams. 22 October 2007 <http://online.culturegrams.com>.
  1. “African People and Culture.” The African Guide. 23 October 2007 <http://www.africaguide.com>.
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http://online.culturegrams.com/world_country_sections.php?contid=1&wmn=Africa

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East Africa Living Encyclopedia http://www.africa.upenn.edu/NEH/Khome.htm

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